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#Money #Banking #Lecture
Money and Banking – Lecture 01
finance and banking
Thank you so much professor.
Banks do not 'lend' money. They buy and sell securities. It's been proven that a 'loan' is created from nothing when you sign the agreement. This is how the money supply is created. Banks do not act as intermediatary looking after you money. You lend the bank money when you open an account. There is no legal definition of a bank 'deposit'. Money in the form of a loan is never taken from one 'saver' and lent to a 'borrower' .
97% of 'money' is digital numbers on a screen. Only 3% cash is in actual circulation. This is why it is easy for banks to create most of the money supply…..
Bless your sharing power I will give focus to watch all the videos. to work on this skill thank you
Hi sir Dr./Prof Criss, I will study well , Your way of lecturing gives me interest to concentrate as I can. I am very ill caused of fatal accident and looking forward for three surgeries more then after my fully recovery I need to be ready for new life, new job and regarding my health condition as not healthy any longer I mean For surgeries before, Titanuim on cervical spine stenosis. Neuroplastic in my heart, Cervical, left arm immediately paralyzed during the accident but it has a neuro plastic for circulation of blood vessel slowly but I use my right hand for the keyboard. So sad , I cannot play my acoustic guitar any longer but I keep prayin that I will be alright soon. While I stay in my bed or on couch I continue watching and continue understanding very well. My elder sisters are all graduates on Commerce course and I’m proud of the eldest because she’s Account then she started working in Central bank in my country, my youngest sister didn’t like so much because she prefer Medicine Degree but because she loves our Dad she obeyed to take Commerce then masteral of managerial positions. I live here in Milan for 29 years so I miss a lot our bonding. I’m a computer programmer 👩💻 but I’m very interested in this course. It is a big challenge to me. Even I am invalid I can do or work but in offices, so I am preparing myself for my new life. In God’s Will all is Possible. Life is beautiful if you seek what life means even we have difficulties. I’m very tired of being sick of injuries, injured, severe chronic pain but Faith and strength is very important. I breathe with God’s breath. God is good to us. Thank you so much Prof Criss. You helping to understand so I will ready for the class maybe next year after surgeries well done all. God bless you and all who are watching this very clear lecture. 🙋♀️🥰🙏pray for me and advance thank you so much 🙏
The rich stay by spending like poor and investing nonstop while the poor stay by spending like the rich and yet not making any investment
I need the notes of The mystery of banking.
Professor you so good I love the way you teach
May your marginal benefit be more than your marginal cost
Professor Your lectures are amazing..I like the way you teach..I have a request to make..Will you plz make videos on subject "Small Business Management"
Wawo Iwish every day in could stay with such an amazing professor
Thank you for this. You explained really well. What an amazing teacher ❤️
Clear explination. Thank you Sir!
Thank you professor, thank you very much!!!!! You made the subject very easy and cleared many topics and terminology, special thanks to the individual recording the lecture
thanks sir, you are amazing
Dude, I studied economics for 6 years at UCLA. This proffessor is one of the best teachers ive seen
Why prof still need to use whiteboard. Does the univ not have projector, laptop facility
Hello Professor, thank you for the lecrures.
I'm an undergraduate student, want to study finance from home.
Can you please tell what courses to start with?
I have finished Microeconomics already.
2.6. Handy’s best-fit theory identified four variables:
Handy said that each of these variables could be what he described as ‘loose’ or ‘tight’.
A tight leader is very autocratic. Tight subordinates like being told what to do and want to avoid
risk. They want repetitive tasks; tighter tasks are routine and well understood, relatively simple. And
a tight environment would be one where, perhaps, time is short or there isn’t much resource to go
‘Loose’ would mean that the leader is very participative or democratic; subordinates want to
participate and contribute to solutions. The tasks are novel, complex, high risk; the environment is
one which is more generous in time and resources to allow complex tasks to be dealt with.
Handy said that provided all four variables line up, either all loose or all tight, things will work fairly
well. So an autocratic manager in charge of staff who want to be told what to do, doing routine,
repetitive tasks in an environment which is rather constrained will tend to work. However, he said
that once you get a crossover you are in trouble. If you put an autocratic leader in charge of highly
trained subordinates who are used to contributing towards solutions or problems, and who are
used to participation, and these people are given routine tasks with not much time to do them in,
then it’s not going to work very well. The subordinates will not get on with their leader; the
subordinates will not enjoy the task.
So when it comes to “How shall we manage?”, Handy is saying it depends on the situation and the
variables. The best way of managing is to make sure the leader, subordinates, task, and
environments all match. Note that this is quite different from saying that tight is better than loose
or loose is better than tight. What we are saying is that either will work provided the four variables
2.7. Adair – action-centred leadership
Adair is associated with action-centred leadership.
How shall we manage? Well, according to Adair, it depends. On some occasions there may be a
very urgent task and we have to reduce our concern for individuals and the group and concentrate
on the task. Sometimes there may be crisis within a group; perhaps their leader has left, perhaps
there is disagreement within it, and then the manager or leader should pay more attention to
making sure that the group operates properly. Of course, sometimes the proper approach to
leadership will mean concentrating on an individual and seeing to their needs, perhaps like giving
advice or training.
2.8. Entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship
An entrepreneur is someone who is willing to make the effort and to take the risks to set up a new
business. Generally these people have strong wills, determination and a belief that they are right
and that the business opportunity they have spotted and are working on will be a success. They are
not always easy to get along with and often have an abrasive management style. Also, although
they are inspired by the excitement and challenge of starting a new venture they often become
bored with day-to-day management and administrative tasks. Professional managers, not
entrepreneurs, are often better a running a business once it is established.
An intrapreneur is an employee who promotes innovation and new business ideas within an
existing organisation. Intrapreneurs bear much less risk than entrepreneurs and investment capital
is supplied by the company that employs them. However, intrapreneurs are different from
traditional managers. For example:
There is a growing trend for companies to encourage employee entrepreneurship to discover
and exploit new goods and services. Particularly when a business is dealing with rapidly changing
products and services (such as in IT, pharmaceuticals, entertainment) new employees might have
better and more up-to-date ideas than established managers – who might be somewhat staid.
The following can encourage intrapreneurship:
๏ Let it be known that spending time on new ideas is welcomed.
๏ Remove administrative and cultural barriers. For example, make it easy for employees to meet
up with others to discuss and develop ideas.
๏ Give ownership. If employees have promising ideas let them present them to management
and fully involve the employee in developing that idea.
๏ Embrace failure. Nothing ventured – nothing gained. Many employee ideas will lead to
nowhere, but better floating ideas in the first place than having none.
Examples of innovation that arose from intrapreneurship:
๏ DreamWorks (a film production company) provides staff with scripting courses then
encourages them to present their ideas for new films to senior management.
๏ Google started as a search engine, but an employee had the idea to create Gmail.
๏ 3M – allowed employees to spend time on their own ideas. One discovered the technology
that led to Post-It notes.
Guys could anyone please tell me where is the lecture that talks about chapter 4 (Mishkin)? I mean is it lecture 30? 40? I just want the number of the lecture please.
I wish to give you a hundred likes not just one.
2. What makes a leader?
Bennis suggested that great leaders have certain qualities. You might like to compare this list with
the qualities of good managers you have known or good world leaders and politicians you know
๏ Integrity – that really means honesty.
๏ Magnanimity – magnanimity is like generosity, particularly when you have won a battle;
๏ Openness, so that people can trust you.
๏ Creativity, so that you can think of novel solutions to difficult problems.
However, this list, sensible though it seems, does not really tell someone how to become a good
leader nor will it help in the recruitment of potential leaders. Several theories emerged attempting
to predict leadership or to help people achieve good leadership abilities.
2.1. Trait theory
One of the earliest theories is known as “trait theory.” Here the hope was that we could perhaps
spot who will be a good manager through certain other traits that they might possess such as
intelligence, initiative, self-assurance, even how tall the person was. This never really got very far; it
was too subjective. For example, how would you balance intelligence versus charisma? Many good
leaders are tall but then leaders such as Napoleon and many others were rather small and were
Trait theory was really a dead end: it proved to be no good whatsoever by predicting who the good
managers might be.
2.2. Human relations approach
Around 1935, Elton Mayo carried out a very important series of experiments at the Hawthorne
plant of the Western Electric company.
In one of these experiments he divided a department into two. Half of the workers were the control
group, but for the other half he varied the lighting, sometimes making it better, sometimes worse.
He then asked those workers what lighting they preferred and what suggestions they might have
for improving it. Much to his surprise he discovered that whether or not the lighting was increased
or decreased, the productivity of the people in the experimental group went up.
The conclusion from this experiment was that by making these people feel special, by asking their
opinions, by asking for suggestions, they were motivated i.e. the manager led people to be
enthusiastic about their work.. Employees enjoyed being treated as individuals, as people, rather
than simply being told what to do. This led to what was called a “human relations school” in
recognition that there is more to good management than simply planning, organising, controlling,
coordinating, and communicating.
2.3. Style theory and contingency theories
Style theory says that a manager’s or leader’s style determines leadership success. In particular,
styles might have to change depending on who you are dealing with. In other words, good
leadership is not a set way of behaving but is contingent on the circumstances.
2.4. McGregor – theory X and Theory Y
McGregor’s name is associated with Theory X and Theory Y. This can be regarded as a contingent
theory of management.
The Theory X manager assumes that people really don’t want to work, that they have to be
watched very carefully, that they are lazy, that they only go to work with some reluctance because
they have to earn money to live.
The Theory Y manager believes that the workforce thinks that work is as natural as play, that they
get enormous social rewards from going to work, that they get enormous interest from going to
work, that they like being given problems to solve, and they like recognition.
So how should we lead these people?
McGregor recognised that there may be at the extremes these two sorts of people. It was called
Theory X and Theory Y to be entirely neutral, not Theory Wrong and Theory Right. Basically he was
saying that if you are put in charge of people who don’t like to work and who go there reluctantly,
then perhaps the way you have to get the best work out of these people is to be very strict with
them, to watch them carefully, to control them closely.
If however you are a manager of people who have good qualifications, who are used to being
asked their opinion, who have high technical skills, then by far the best way to motivate them is a
much more participative approach.
So motivation is effectively a matter of contingency. It depends whom you are trying to motivate.
Different people are motivated by different managerial approaches.
2.5. The Ashridge Management College model.
This identified four types of leadership style, but remember these are only points in the continuum
of management styles.
First and the most autocratic or dictatorial is “tells.” The manager simply tells the staff what to do.
The manager does not even feel a need to have to explain why that’s what has to be done.
A slightly more liberal approach is “sells.” Here the manager tells people what to do but then sells
that idea to them, convinces or persuades them, or explains why it has to be done that way.
Next, there is the “consults” style. Here the manager will ask staff what they think ought to be done,
but then the manager will make the final decision. However, this is quite a participative style.
Finally there is “joins” or joins with. This can be entirely democratic where the manager actually
abandons management and asks people to vote on what should be done. This might be the sort of
style adopted for deciding things like where should the summer outing be. However, many people
regard this extremely democratic style of leadership as abandoning one of the important functions
of management which is to direct and control.
The word “social” recognises that we are not machines, that we are people, that we have an
important social or human aspect to our characters. We will see that in the early theories of
management, the social dimension was often rather understated.
The idea of “controlled” is important. Basically one of the roles of management will be to set some
sort of goals or targets and then to try to ensure that people achieve that.
Finally, “collective”; the idea that in an organisation we should all be working together
So, what then is leadership?
Bennis makes a distinction between the term “manager” and the term “leader.”
A manager is primarily concerned with administering the status quo. In other words, primarily
looking after the existing business somewhat in the short term, and keeping an eye on the profit
for the coming year. That’s not to say management is not an important activity. But best to think of
a manager as having a time horizon of about a year.
A leader is more concerned with innovation, will be looking at the long-term future of the
organisation, will not be so concerned with matters of detailed control, but will be focusing on
people, inspiring trust, asking “How can we improve, where should the business go, what should
the business do?”.
The leader can therefore be regarded as transformational – in other words, concerned with doing
the right thing; whereas the manger is more concerned with transactional leadership – in other
words, doing things right, but not necessarily questioning whether what we are doing and
controlling is useful.
Kotter said that leadership and management are two distinct and complementary systems and
both are necessary.
Leadership – change
Creating agenda Establishing direction Planning and budgeting
Developing HR Aligning people Organising and staffing
Execution Motivating and inspiring Controlling and problem
Outcomes Produces changes – often
Produces predictability and
Management is about coping with complexity. Without good management complex companies
and organisations tend to become chaotic. Good management brings order and consistency.
Leadership by contrast is about coping with change. All change always demands more leadership.
Companies manage complexity by planning and budgeting, by organising their staff, by
controlling performance, and problem-solving.
Leading an organisation, however, involves setting a direction, developing a vision of the future,
developing strategies to achieve that vision, motivating and enthusing people to keep them
moving in the right direction.
You are just Amazing & genius lecturer! Very kind and generous too. I never attended my own lectures & classes but with your superb explanation and teaching skills I managed to understand almost everything and scored best result in my MSc Exam.
Whoz watching this2020
Students, stop brownosing this guy!
Thanks sir I am from India sir, very best teach I can never before see thanks sir👍